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The half-life of active carbon ranges from a few days to a few years. Proctor Curve – the curve showing the relationship between dry unit weight and water content of a soil for a given compactive effort. Landslide – the downward and outward sliding or movement of a soil mass of earth or rock, or a mixture of both. Ideally, a soil should have 50% pore space in a soil with 50% mineral. Atterberg Limits – the results of three tests, the liquid limit test, the plastic limit test, and the shrinkage limit test (only the first two are commonly performed). Examples of primary tillage include moldboard plowing, chisel plowing, and sub-soiling, while finishing tools like a disk, field cultivator, or cultipacker would be considered secondary tillage. Most soil profiles cover the earth as 2 main layers—topsoil and subsoil. Borrow Pit – a circular hole made with a rotary or diamond drill with an auger or other rotated cutting tools or bits for exploring rock or soil.  Part of the Standard Penetration Test (SPT). They are the most populous animals on the planet. Scientists use soil quality indicators to evaluate how well soil functions since soil function often cannot be directly measured. diameter. Hardness – resistance of a given material to indentation or scratching. Actinomycetes: A large group of rod-shaped or filamentous bacterium that includes some that cause diseases and some that are the sources of antibiotics. Bank Run – material, usually gravel or sand, that is not processed but is used in the as-found condition. Core Bit – a bit used to extract a core for testing.  These fills are loose because they had little or no mechanical compaction during construction. Humic Substances (HS): Series of relatively high molecular weight organic substances which are brown to black in color. Compacted soils have poor structure and more microaggregates and micropores. Macroaggregates are typically found in undisturbed soils such as continuous no-till with cover crops. Fissures – naturally occurring openings in rock formations. It typically ranges from 0.5 to 5% in soil. Basal Respiration (BR): Respiration, or oxygen used, by soil microbes to decompose organic matter or any crop residues as a food and energy source and released as carbon dioxide into the soil atmosphere. Mycelium is the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a mass of branching, threadlike hyphae. Frost Heave – the heaving of the ground due to the formation of ice lenses. Labile: A substance that is readily transformed or used by microorganisms. Meniscus – the curved, film-like layer at the surface of a liquid at rest within a container. Soil degradation is the short to medium term deterioration of soil caused by land use, soil management, and the soil's susceptibility to soil processes that promote loss of function (Blum, 1998; Lal, 1998). A high BR generally indicates higher soil microbial activity, however, not biological efficiency. The “Site Description” and “Profile Description” sections generally follow conventional profile description format and Transported Soil – soil transported from the place of its origin by wind, water or ice. It is equal to the slope of the tangent or the secant of a stress-strain curve. The rhizosphere typically supports 1000 to 2000 times more microbes than the bulk soil without live roots. Gravel – rounded or semirounded particles of rock that pass a 3-in. Alkaline: A soil with a pH between … Also called boring or drill hole. Key Terms: addition eluviation illuviation loss soil horizons soil profile solum subsoil substratum topsoil transformation translocation Soil Profile A soil profile is a vertical cross section of the soil. The Soil profile is made up of broken-down rock materials of varying degrees of fineness. The greater the HD, the higher the soil organic matter polymerization and condensation. Note: There is a project minimum of $5k for residential projects in your region. Compressive Strength – the load per unit area at which an unconfined cylindrical soil specimen will fail in a simple compression test. Fungus: Microorganisms that contain a rigid cell wall that are either single-celled or multicellular organisms without chlorophyll that reproduces by spores and lives by absorbing nutrients from organic matter. What is Soil profile| Soil Profile nature factors Soil profile . These include the “A” horizon, the uppermost layer of a soil profile from which inorganic colloids and other soluble materials have been leached; the “B” horizon, the layer of a soil profile in which material leached … Excess Pore Water Pressure – the portion of the pore water pressure that is due to transient effects such as consolidation. A characteristic of loess deposits is that they can stand with nearly vertical slopes. It is found for a sample by dividing the weight of the water by the weight of the solid particles. Glomalin: A glycoprotein (sugar-protein complex) produced by mycorrhizal fungus (e.g. Rocks subject to continuous processes of physical and chemical and biological weathering.Due to this continuous weathering, these develop layers of soil one over the other in a … Failure Criterion – mechanical condition under which solid materials fail by facturing or by deforming beyond some specified limit. Casing – a steel pipe that is temporarily inserted into a boring or drilled shaft in order to prevent the adjacent soil from caving. Hardpan – a hard impervious soil layer which does not become plastic when mixed with water and limits the downward movement of water and roots. Specific Maintenance of Respiration (qCO2): It is expressed as basal respiration per unit of total microbial biomass. This Glossary of Soil Science Terms was an ad hoc committee of the Soil Science of America to provide a single glossary of terms for the various disciplines of soil science. Horizon – One of the layers of a soil profile, distinguished  principally by its texture, color, structure and chemical content. Bentonite Slurry – a mixture of a highly plastic clay, known as bentonite, with water to form a material with a consistency similar to that of pea soup. This is the most labile fraction of carbon in humus to decompose. In-Situ – referring to the in-place or undisturbed properties or state of a soil. Ideal soil quality indicators should (1) correlate well with ecosystem processes; (2) integrate soil physical, chemical, and biological properties and processes; (3) be accessible to many users; and (4) be sensitive to management and natural processes. Liquid Limit (an Atterberg limit, LL)  – the water content at which a pat of soil, cut by a groove of standard dimensions, will flow together for a distance of 1/2 in. Aeolian Deposits – wind-deposited material such as dune sands and loess soil deposits. Soil Organic Matter: Classified into two major groups composing a humic and non-humic substances. Total Carbon: The total of all forms of carbon in the soil. Normally Consolidated Soil – soil that has never been subjected to an effective pressure greater than the existing effective overburden pressure. Humification: Process by which the carbon of organic substances is transformed and resynthesized to humic substances through biochemical and physio-chemical processes. The term, as applied to soils, is synonymous with base-exchange capacity but is more precise in meaning. | Columbus, Ohio 43210. In general, organic soils are highly compressible and have poor load-sustaining properties. Passive Carbon: Passive pools of carbon that have a slow turnover rate and are more resistant to decomposition and nutrient release.  (critical*) Hydraulic gradient at which the intergranular pressure in a soil mass is reduced to zero by the upward flow of water. This zone extends from the ground surface to the maximum depth of significant moisture fluctuation. These lenses are the primary cost of frost heave. Crushed Stone – granular material, resulting from the mechanical crushing of rock, boulders or large cobble stones, of which substantially all faces have been fractured by the crushing operations. Leaching – the removal in solution of soluble materials by percolating or moving water. If the pH of the soil is 6.5 or higher, all the total carbon is considered to be organic carbon. and inorganic (phosphates) phosphorus. Protozoa: Any of a large group of one-celled organisms that move by flagella (flagellates), cilia (ciliates), or have flow (amoeba). Coefficient of Permeability – the rate of discharge of water under laminar flow conditions through a unit cross-sectional area of porous medium such as soil under a unit hydraulic gradient and standard temperature and pressure conditions. These soil microorganisms generally resemble fungi and have branched mycelium.  The process is completely reversible. Sometimes used during drilling of borings as a means of preventing the adjacent soil from caving into the boring. A high qR is an indication of an enlarging biological carbon pool in total organic carbon. The split-spoon sampler is a tube that is driven into the soil to be sampled. Bacteria are important for functioning of biochemical properties and/or processes. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Soil bulk density is equal to the dry mass of the soil divided by the volume of the soil; i.e., it includes air space and organic materials of the soil … AERIC: This term refers to soils that are rapidly drained throughout the whole profile… Gradation – graph showing the proportions by mass of a soil or fragmented rock distributed in specified particle-size ranges. Active carbon would include simple polysaccharides and glucose equivalent reduced sugars, amino acids and proteins, soluble and extractable carbon, and microbial biomass carbon, etc. Apparent Cohesion – cohesion in fine granular soils caused by capillary forces. pH – an index of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution expressed in terms of the logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration. The main function of the microbial biomass is to act as bio-catalyst for organic matter decomposition and mineralization, soil fertility, and humus formation and soil aggregation. Coefficient of Uniformity, C₁₂ – the ratio of discharge of water under laminar flow conditions through a unit cross-sectional area of porous medium such as soil under a unit hydraulic gradient and standard temperature and pressure conditions. Start studying Soil profile, Characteristics & Nomenclature. Copyright © 2012, The Ohio State University, James Hoorman, Randall Reeder, Alan Sundermeier, and Rafiq Islam, Ohio State University Extension, Irfan Aziz, Assistant Professor, University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, ©  2020 The Ohio State University, College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences, College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 2120 Fyffe Road | Room 3 Ag Admin Bldg. New concepts and terminology are being used to describe these changes. Dewatering – the process of removing water from a construction area, such as by pumping from sumps or from wells. Penetration Resistance (SPT) – Number of blows (N) required to drive a standard sampler a distance of 1.0 ft into soil using a hammer weighing 140 lbs, falling a 30-in. Unconfined Compression Test – test method in which only a vertical load is applied to the specimen. By using common terminology, soil profile descriptions are valuable for deciding how the soil might be used and/or predicting how the soil might react to its intended use. ¾Soil Horizon - A layer of soil, approximately parallel to the surface, having distinct characteristics produced by soil forming processes. Consolidation – the process of gradual reduction in volume of a soil mass resulting from an increase in compressive stress. The "thinness" of the soil is usually because of the cold, that hinders the development of soil and the ease, which plants can use its nutrients. College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences Print Copies are Available or more that result when rocks are fragmented by weathering or abrasion. Bearing Capacity Failure – a foundation failure that occurs when the shear stresses in the adjacent soil exceed the shear strength. The horizons are normally designated by symbols and letters. The basic unit of study: Soil Profiles A soil profile is a vertical cross- section of a soil. This index can be used as an early and sensitive indicator of carbon or soil organic matter accumulation and could help explain the complex nature of global carbon cycling. Soil Carbon Sequestration: How carbon is stored in the soil; the process by which carbon dioxide from the atmosphere is converted to organic carbon by photosynthesis and the decomposition of that plant carbon into organic matter stored in the soil. Triaxial Compression Test – compression test in which soil, encased in a rubber membrane under applied normal load and lateral confining pressure is stressed to failure, either with or without permitting drainage. Remolded Soil – soil that has had its natural structure modified by mechanical manipulation. Aziz, I. Texture – the arrangement in space of soil particles and of the boundaries between these particles within a soil mass. 1).The spatial variation of soil structure on farmers’ fields (Finke, 1992, 1993) and in catenary sequences in the landscape … Permafrost – perennially frozen soil found at varying depths. Earth's body of soil, called the pedosphere, has four important functions: . Understanding the terms defined in this fact sheet will help farmers understand relationships between tillage, crop rotation, cover crops, carbon sequestration, organic matter pool, agricultural sustainability, and soil and water quality. Frost Susceptible Soil – a soil that is capable of drawing in large quantities of water, usually by capillary action, and forming ice lenses. Angle of Internal Friction – angle between the axis of normal stress and the tangent to the Mohr at a point corresponding to a given failure stress in soil. Plasticity – the property of a soil that allows it to be deformed beyond the point of recovery without cracking or appreciable volume changes. The common air pollutants are ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide (e.g. Refusal – the condition  reached when a pile or a soil sampler being driven by a hammer has negligible penetration from each blow of the hammer. An ideal soil has a bulk density of about 1.25 g cm-3. Gap-Graded – a soil that is missing certain particle sizes. Core Drilling – a rotary drilling technique that cuts out cylindrical rock samples. Start studying Soil Profile. Hemicelluloses: Consists of polymers that branched, the second most common carbohydrate (up to 30%) in plant residues. Soil profile in hills of Manisa Province, Turkey, showing a distinct horizon of accumulated red … Colloids – small particles in suspension that will not settle out due to gravity. It is relatively stable compared to fulvic acid and essential for soil cation exchange capacity and formation of soil structures. , referred to as soil organic matter soil profile terminology upon which it acts modern farming and. Produced by mycorrhizal fungus hyphae in this diagram with the soil are usually due to condensation sugars. ( mutually beneficial ) relationship between dry unit weight and is higher soils! 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